The Villa Borghese is a green and peaceful park in the heart of Rome. A pleasant place to stroll on any day, the 128 acre park offers a host of attractions, including three museums, a lake, temples and fountains among a glorious canopy of green.
Originally a vineyard, Cardinal Scipione Borghese redesigned and enlarged it into a private park in 1605, building the majestic Borghese Gallery at the same time. The park became public in 1903 after it was purchased by the city of Rome.
Inside the Borghese Gallery hangs a painting so shrouded in mystery that art historians today still ponder over the possible meaning behind the depiction. Many over the years have fallen in love with its serene beauty, while others have been intrigued by its hidden secrets and symbolism. There is no doubt that a lot of bewilderment surround these two women in Titian’s painting, Sacred and Profane Love, who seem to be one and the same.
As the story goes, Titian was commissioned by Niccolo Aurelio, one of the Council of the Nine in Venice, to paint the piece in honor of his marriage to Laura Bagarotto. But we have no idea what Titian originally named it. The piece was found in the Borghese Gallery’s archives in 1693 with the name, Amor Divino e Amor Profano (divine love and profane love).
The painting looks simple enough at first glance–Laura Bagarotto, the new bride, sits in sumptuous white next to Cupid or an angel, while Venus assists her in understanding both earthly and heavenly love. Laura holds a vase of jewels symbolizing fleeting happiness on earth while Venus holds the torch upward symbolizing eternal happiness in heaven. At least this is what art historians first thought.
But take a closer look–
The two ladies are sitting on an ancient Roman sarcophagus that is filled with water. Cupid stirs the water while a faucet on the front of the coffin pours water on a sprouting plant. As if this isn’t enough to rouse attention, strange things are happening in the background. A fortress, set on a hill behind the gowned lady, is a typical symbol of war and humanity which could symbolize the profane (worldly). A hunter on horseback is seen riding up to the fortress, but between him and the clothed woman are two rabbits, symbols of fertility. On the other side behind the naked lady is a church which could symbolize the sacred. Two hunters on horseback and a dog (symbol of domesticity) hint that the nude woman is Venus (connection with the hunt). But one would think that the clothed woman would represent sacred love, and the naked one worldly, or profane love.
Symbols of love are everywhere, from the roses on the sarcophagus to the myrtle the clothed woman holds, indication of marital happiness.
In addition, the richly gowned lady wears gloves for falconry, or hunting, and holds her case of jewels which symbolize worldly pleasures. She sits solidly and a little lower than the nude woman.
On the other hand, heavenly beauty needs no earthly adornment. Is the nude woman sacred?
Does Cupid hold the key?
Venus is the goddess of love so Cupid will naturally hover nearby. Is it possible that, by swirling the waters around in the sarcophagus between the two ladies, Cupid is actually suggesting that ideal love is a mix of these two kinds?
But we have based this all on the assumption that the painting is about sacred and profane love. Since we don’t know what the original name was, maybe it has nothing to do with these two loves.
Titian was the most prolific and famous painter of Mary Magdalen. Dr. Francis P. DeStefano in his article, “The Conversion of Mary Magdalen,” discusses the possibility that the gowned woman in the painting is the adulteress at the point of conversion, and that the nude woman is the newly converted Magdalen. Many have seen the splendidly dressed woman as a bride, but is it possible she could be a seductress?
Let’s leave this unsolved mystery to the professionals and get ourselves back to the garden. Summertime in the Villa Borghese Gardens brings a whole venue of musical concerts, making outdoor living all the more attractive. The park’s romantic walkways, relaxing fountains, graceful trees, evocative views of the city especially at sundown, the lake and the secret gardens make it a perfect place to spend a summer afternoon.